Functions allow you to store reusable logic.
The name of the function is the words that precede the parentheses.
The expression in parentheses is the argument of the function. Functions don't need arguments; functions can contain multiple arguments.
The result for this function is outputted below the function and called the return value. Every function returns a value.
In the statement above, our function named
type takes in an argument of
32 and returns
int - an integer.
type is a function built into the Python standard library. So, the function has already been defined for us.
In the statement above, we call the function
type to perform the function's computation and return the result.
Execution of the return statement exits the function.
Bike Trips Example
Below is a sample of data for bike trips as a list of lists. Each inner list holds the data for a trip formatted as [duration in seconds, date].
bike_trips = [[475, '2018-02-18'], [825, '2018-02-18'], [1034, '2018-02-18'], [980, '2018-02-18'], [1350, '2018-02-19'], [1880, '2018-02-19'], [1950, '2018-02-19'], [1530, '2018-02-19'] ]
We want to answer these questions:
- What is the average trip duration on any given day?
- How many trips were taken on any given day?
In terms of Python, there's 3 componenents we want to create:
- Sum of trip durations on a day
- Count of trips on a day
- Averge trip duration on a day
We can create our own functions with logic for each component.
Sum of trip durations on a day
def is a Python keyword that indicates the start of a function definition.
The name preceding
def is the function name. Python recommends lowercase letters and underscores between words - similar to naming variables.
An argument passed to
sum_seconds_biked_day is assigned to a variable called a parameter. We use this parameter in the body of our function.
Inside our functions, you'll see text in triple quotes. These triple quotes are docstrings - plain text as comments to document the logic of your function.
# global variables below can be used in any function index_trip_duration_seconds = 0 index_trip_date = 1 def sum_seconds_biked_day(ride_date): """ Find the sum of seconds biked on a given day Keyword argument: ride_date -- date (string in format year-month-day) """ sum_trips_seconds = 0 for trip in bike_trips: if trip[index_trip_date] == ride_date: sum_trips_seconds += trip[index_trip_duration_seconds] return sum_trips_seconds
Count of trips on a day
def count_bike_trips_day(ride_date): """ Count bike trips on a given day Keyword argument: ride_date -- date (string in format year-month-day) """ count = 0 for trip in bike_trips: if trip[index_trip_date] == ride_date: count += 1 return count
Average trip duration on a day
An average computation is the sum of events divided by the count of events.
We can call our two previously created functions inside a new function.
def average_trip_duration_seconds_day(ride_date): """ Compute average trip duration in seconds Keyword argument: ride_date -- date (string in format year-month-day) """ return sum_seconds_biked_day(ride_date) / count_bike_trips_day(ride_date)
average_trip_duration_seconds_day, the flow of execution is to call the function
sum_seconds_biked_day and divide the return value by the return value of
Answer questions for February 18th, 2018
Present data in better readable format
It's weird to say the average trip duration for February 18th, 2018 is 825.5 seconds. You should pronounce it in days.
Let's design a function to present the average trip durations in a more typical format such as 38 minutes and 40 seconds.
seconds_in_a_minute = 60 def convert_seconds_to_minutes_seconds_readable_format(total_seconds): """ Convert a seconds value into a clean readable format of X minutes and Y seconds Keyword argument: total_seconds -- seconds value (integer) """ minutes = total_seconds // seconds_in_a_minute seconds = total_seconds % seconds_in_a_minute readable_statement = str(minutes) + " minutes and " + str(seconds) + " seconds" return readable_statement
We pass a function call as an argument to a function too.
'13.0 minutes and 48.5 seconds'
Why are Functions Important
Creating a new function gives you an opportunity to coordinate similar statements together, which makes your code easier to read and debug. Our seconds conversion definition utilizes similar concepts with seconds, minutes and math logic around time conversions.
Functions can make a program smaller by eliminating repetitive code. You'll often hear in programming the acronym DRY - do not repeat yourself. We wrapped
count_bike_trips_day in a function and can utilize it to calculate just the count of trips in a day as well as the average trip duration of rides in a day. We reuse our counting logic. It is much more concise to call a function twice than to copy and paste the body!
Using multiple functions in a program allows you to easily write logic in components - step by step - just as we did with our sum, count and average functions. I find it's quicker to get to the final solution by writing out small functions and utilize them together.
Well-designed functions can be used in multiple programs. Our
convert_seconds_to_minutes_seconds_readable_format can used to analyze the time it takes to repair bikes, the amount of time people spend in a bike store and more.
- Python standard library of mathematical statistics functions