Data Visualizations Best Practices Tutorial

When to Use Line Plots

Line plots are often best to illustrate the change in a variable over time.

Unlike bar plots, I think the variable in line plots should not be a sum or count metric. For example, I would use a line plot for visualizing temperature data over time because temperature is just a single recorded value.

Import Modules

In [8]:
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

Example: Historic Weather Monthly Averages in San Francisco

I want to see the general trend of the change in temperature for the months in San Francisco, California.

Record Weather Data in Python Lists

In [9]:
average_lows = [46, 48, 49, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 55, 54, 50, 54]
average_highs = [57, 60, 62, 63, 64, 67, 67, 68, 70, 69, 63, 57]
In [57]:
months = [date.strftime("%b") for date in pd.date_range(start='1/2017', end='1/2018', freq='M')]

Plot Monthly Weather Data

In [19]:
df = pd.DataFrame({'month': months, 'average_high': average_highs,
                  'average_low': average_lows})
In [21]:
df.set_index('month').plot(kind='line', figsize=(8, 7), grid=True, style='o-')
plt.title("Historical Monthly Averages in San Francisco", fontsize=18, y=1.01)
plt.xlabel("Month", fontsize=13, labelpad=15)
plt.ylabel("Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit)", fontsize=14, labelpad=15)

Explanation of Historical Monthly Averages Plot

The coolest months in San Francisco tend to be December to February while the warmest ones tend to be June to October.

Example: Change in Height Over Time

As a child, when I did yearly checkups at my doctor's office, my doctor recorded my height. Below, I plotted fictional data of my height over time.

Create Data for Month-Year Values and Height

In [46]:
month_years = [date.strftime("%b %Y") for date in pd.date_range(start='12/30/1990', end='12/31/2013', freq='A')]
In [47]:
heights_inches = [7, 11, 15, 20, 25, 31, 38, 45, 51, 56, 60, 64, 68, 70, 72, 72, 72, 72, 72, 72, 72, 72, 72, 72]

Plot Change in Height Over Time

In [48]:
df2 = pd.DataFrame({'month_year': month_years, 'height_inches': heights_inches})
In [54]:
df2.set_index('month_year').plot(kind='line', figsize=(10, 8), grid=True, style='o-')
plt.title("My Height Over Time", fontsize=18, y=1.01)
plt.xlabel("Date (month year)", fontsize=13, labelpad=15)
plt.ylabel("Height (inches)", fontsize=14, labelpad=15);

Explanation of Height Over Time Line Plot

I grew very rapidly until about December 2002, then only grew a couple inches over the next two years, and by 2004, I stopped growing in height.